Empty or Dummy Subjects and Anticipatory Subjects; "It"

Empty subject It

In some sentences we have to use a dummy subject (also called empty subject, prop subject, slot-filler subject, or artificial subject) when there is no subject or when the subject is somewhere else in the sentence.

It's raining outside.

It's four o'clock.

It's forty degrees.

It's ten kilometers to the next town.

It's lovely here.

It's getting late.

It's important to wear your mask when you go out.

It's helpful to write down your passwords somewhere.

It's thundering.

It's lightning outside. 

Anticipatory subject It

In some sentences it is used to introduce or anticipate the subject.  Most often the subject will be a clause, usually a to infinitive clause or that clause.

It was good that he decided to move to the city.

It's nice to talk to you again.

It's quite likely that the results will be unfavorable.

I find it surprising that you've liked the movie.

I find it amazing to be part of this team.

It seems he has finished his work early.

It occurred to me that it is a good idea to visit him.


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