Cohesive Devices or Discourse Markers

In spite of their high sounding names, Cohesive Devices are words or phrases that we use quite often to connect phrases, sentences and paragraphs.  They are also called Discourse Markers, Linking Words, Connectors, and Transitional Words.

These words are used in both spoken and written English.


To show continuity or progress (Sequencing / Structuring)

Fist, firstly, secondly, then, next, after that, lastly, first of all, finally, to begin with, to start with, meanwhile, then, subsequently


To add information

And, therefore, furthermore, moreover, in addition, too, also, besides

To express contrast or contradiction

But, although, though, even though, despite, in spite of, whereas, while, however, nevertheless, albeit, yet, still, on the contrary, even so


To give reason

Because of, as, since, due to , owing to, for


To show the result

So, as a result, therefore, consequently 

To give the purpose

In order to,  so, so that, so as to, so as not to

To illustrate

For example, for instance, in particular

To compare

Similarly, in the same way, likewise, like, equally

To generalize

On the whole, in some cases, in general, in all, many, most, broadly speaking

Though, although and even though

Although I was sick, I didn't want to miss the class.

Though she reached on time, the boss was not pleased.

Though is slightly less formal than although.  So 'although' is used more in written English.

Even though shows a greater contrast, or even a bit of surprise.

Even though he did not attempt half the questions, he passed the exam.

If there is an element of surprise, you can use 'even though' 

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